Rather than dealing with difficult issues like homelessness, hostile design simply puts them out of sight and out of mind. It pushes those deemed unworthy of belonging to the “public” to the fringes, drawing a clear line that marks who belongs in our shared spaces and who does not.
If we let the Vietnamese speak for themselves, we realize that we need to call a spade a spade: it was not only an act of American aggression in which the US tries to step into the shoes of the old imperial powers of Europe. The synthesis reached by Nguyen, Hoang, and many of the anti-war student movements in Paris – between communism, anticolonialism, and an opposition to the war –succeeded in implicating the US as such.
In the context of the capitalist marketplace, one can argue that the feminism projected in Bulletin’s retail setting is not feminism at all, but rather a combination of signs and a culmination of associations that suggest a depoliticized, but feminist-branded feel. The aesthetically pleasing products of Bulletin are powerful, however, because they provide consumers the language to think about social and political ideas, which consumers then use to construct and solidify their own decontextualized feminist identities.
Japan has a family-like structure in which everyone strives to obey and respect the Emperor, who is the head of this national family. According to Maruyama, he keeps the balance and without him, the family structure would be dismantled. However, this form has been deeply embedded in culture since 1868 and has kept its course even when the Emperor renounced his divinity. This paved the way for the United States to adopt the Emperor-like image that was necessary in the cultural seams of Japan.
Indigeneity has been subject to religious and cultural otherization and temporal and spatial sequestering, which has rendered it prior, separate, and incongruent with Americanism. Thus, the history of the United States is marred with the systematic de-indigenization of persons and land and, yet, Native Americans are continuously omitted from American educational curricula and racial debate.