[women vote for the first time in 1963]
The Iranian Revolution of 1979 defies reductive categorization. Third Worldist, Islamic Marxist and radical Shi’i ideologies converged and proliferated throughout Iranian society during the movement to end the autocracy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. These factions developed and disseminated radical political ideas reflecting socio-economic and cultural grievances that emphasized themes of anti-Americanism in visual media.
My Facebook newsfeed was ablaze as I scrolled through countless posts ending in #Ferguson, #BlackLivesMatter, and #HandsUpDontShoot. Moments earlier, a Missouri court had ruled not to indict police officer Darren Wilson for the August 2014 shooting of Michael Brown, an unarmed young black man. Friends of mine had swiftly taken to the internet to voice their outrage, disgust, and demands for action. Within minutes of the decision, millions of similar posts had already surged across the Internet -- but the public outcry didn’t stop there.
In the opening of Eugene O'Neill's play The Iceman Cometh, two fishermen drunkenly discuss the value of the truth. "To hell with the truth!" one of them exclaims, "It's irrelevant and immaterial, as the lawyers say. The lie of a pipe dream is what gives life to the whole misbegotten mad lot of us, drunk or sober."
Famine conjures up disconcerting images of emaciated people and wasting, languid children. Witnessing it comes as a visceral shock – the slow and silent extenuating of social structures, family and then the human body itself.
This paper seeks to explore causes of Iranian mistrust towards the United States after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, focusing on the events between 1980 and 1988—the time of the Iran-Iraq War (5). Although anti-American sentiment predates the 1980s, this paper will focus on the events concerning Iran and the United States from the beginning of the Islamic Republic up until the end of the Iran-Iraq War.
Much of the progress in that has been seen in criminal procedure, environmental protection, and corruption recently in China has been made by weiquan lawyers pursuing legal claims, activists using social media, and rural citizens engaging in acts of civil disobedience.
The Krugman case is thus complex, full of ethical questions essential to the practice of productive and reputable research. Critics have hotly debated Krugman’s claims that he acted ethically, and logical arguments can be made for both sides. Nevertheless, what is clear is that Krugman’s research and its criticisms clearly show the duality of medicine: the conflict between maximizing benefit to an individual patient versus maximizing the benefit to society.
In China, food scarcity is not a new problem. Famine is deeply embedded in Chinese history and ingrained in the public’s historical consciousness. Censorship programs by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) aim to wipe memories of the Great Leap Forward and its catastrophic consequences from the minds of the Chinese, but interviews with survivors and aggressive research has led to scholars estimating that between 35 and 45 million people died between 1958 and 1961 because of the CCP’s collectivist agricultural policies.
Tobacco’s history and China’s reactions thereto reflect the profound impressions that colonial intervention has left on China’s historical consciousness. By considering China’s former opium trade and its current tobacco industry, one may discover a paradox that is both a product of and a response to its modern history.